Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Commonly Confused Verbs Shall and Will

The verbs shall and will both point to the future, but in contemporary  American English, shall is used only rarely. In  British English, shall and will are often used interchangeably with little or no difference of meaning. According to linguist R.L. Trask, traditional rules regarding  shall and will are little more than a fantastic invention. Internationally, will is now the standard choice for expressing future plans and expectations. However, in first-person questions shall is often used to express politeness  (Shall we dance?), and in legal statements, shall is used with a third-person subject for stating requirements (Rent shall be paid  when due,  in accordance with the terms hereof). Examples I signed the lease. Incredible. In the middle of all this fine print, there was the one simple sentence, There shall be no water beds.(John Updike, Gesturing. Playboy, 1980)   Stuttering, Bessie told him  what had happened to her. She showed him the handle of the key she had clutched in her hand all night.Mother of God! he called out.What shall I do? Bessie asked.I will open your door.But you dont have a passkey.(Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Key. The New Yorker, 1970)   [W]hen people come and see me they always say, Shall we meet in the local pub?(Simon Russell Beale, quoted by  Imogen Carter  and  Kathryn Bromwich, What Goes On in the Wings. The Observer [UK], November 20, 2016)   If you do not eat your potatoes, you will be upset, and I will be upset; your father, clearly, is already upset. If you do eat your potatoes, I shall be pleased, you will be pleased, your tummy will be pleased.(William Goldman, The Princess Bride. Harcourt, 1973)   I will go home, Bessie decided. People will not leave me in the streets.(Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Key.  The New Yorker, 1970)   Humans need to find a new  planet within 1,000 years to keep the species alive,  Stephen Hawking said in a talk this week. Hawking, the noted theoretical physicist, said that humans will likely expend the planet’s resources in that time.(Justin Worland, Stephen Hawking Gives Humans a Deadline for Finding a New Planet. Time,  November 17, 2016) Usage Notes [T]heres simply  no reason to hold on to shall. The word is peripheral in American English.(Bryan A, Garner,  Garners Modern English Usage, 4th ed. Oxford University Press, 2016) The Traditional Rules There is a traditional textbook ruling that runs as follows. For simple futurity, you use shall after I or we but will after everything else, while, to express determination or command, you use will after I or we but shall after everything else. By these rules, the required forms are We shall finish tonight (simple statement) versus We will finish tonight (expressing determination), but They will finish tonight (simple statement) versus They shall finish tonight (an order).As grammarians never tire of pointing out, these bizarre rules do not accurately describe the real usage of careful speakers at any time or in any place in the history of English, and they are little more than a fantastic invention. If you are one of the handful of speakers for whom these rules now seem completely natural, then by all means go ahead and follow them. But, if you are not, just forget about them, and use your natural forms.Do not try to use shall if the word does not feel entirely natural, and especia lly dont try to use it merely in the hope of sounding more elegant. Doing so will probably produce something that is acceptable to no one.(R.L. Trask, Say What You Mean! A Troubleshooters Guide to English Style and Usage, David R. Godine, 2005) The Hazy Distinction Between Intention and Futurity [T]he distinction between intention and futurity can be hazy, and grammarians of C17 and C18 devised an odd compromise whereby both shall and will could express one or the other, depending on the grammatical person involved. . . . Research by Fries (1925) into the language of English drama from C17 on showed that this division of labor was artificial even in its own time. These paradigms were however enshrined in textbooks of later centuries and still taught a few decades ago. Their neglect is one of the better consequences of abandoning the teaching of grammar in schools.(Pam Peters, The Cambridge Guide to English Usage, Cambridge University Press, 2004)​ British Uses of Shall and Will British people use I shall/I will and we shall/we will with no difference of meaning in most situations. However, shall is becoming very much less common than will. Shall is not normally used in American English. . . . Shall and will are not only used for giving information about the future. They are also common in offers, promises, orders and similar kinds of interpersonal language use. In these cases, will (or ll) generally expresses willingness, wishes or strong intentions (this is connected with an older use of will to mean wish or want). Shall expresses obligation (like a more direct form of should).(Michael Swan, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press, 1995)​ Where Shall Survives In colloquial and indeed all spoken English . . . will is fast displacing shall in all cases in which shall was formerly used and in which we are recommended to use it. . . . It survives chiefly in first person questions, where it usefully distinguishes Shall I open the window? (as an offer or proposal) from Will I need a towel? ( will it be necessary). It is useful that the construction ll stands for both shall and will. (Eric Partridge, Usage and Abusage, edited by Janet Whitcut, W.W. Norton, 1995)​ AP Style Use shall to express determination: We shall overcome. You and he shall stay. Either shall or will may be used in first-person constructions that do not emphasize determination: We shall hold a meeting. We will hold a meeting.For second- and third-person constructions, use will unless determination is stressed: You will like it. She will not be pleased.(The Associated Press 2015  Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, Basic Books, 2015) Practice (a) Lets go into the church, _____ we?(b) If you build it, he _____ come.(c) Martha _____ bring the salad. Answers to Practice Exercises: Shall and Will (a) Lets go into the church, shall we?(b) If you build it, he will come.(c) Martha  will bring the salad. Glossary of Usage: Index of Commonly Confused Words

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ccot Europe 600-1750 Essay - 1003 Words

Continuity Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay Europe 600-1750 Taylor Question: analyze the social and economic continuities and changes that occurred in Europe between 600 and 1750. During the time period between 600 and 1750, economic and social continuities and changes impacted Western Europe immensely. One particular economic alteration was the decline of feudal manoralism, prevalent in the early medieval era, as a result of the restoration of commerce following the Crusades. Another major change was the socioeconomic impact of the Age of Exploration circa 1500, which would establish European Hegemony. While economic transforma-tions occurred throughout Western Europe, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church was†¦show more content†¦As trade once again began to flourish, Europe saw the decline of manoralism. This was due to the rise in the merchant class which challenged the power of the Aristocracy, thereby weakening their influence. Increased business in port cities caused urbanization in several areas in addition to an emerging middle class. Burgeoning trade and economic prosperity allowed for the resurgence of Greco-Roman intelligence an d culture in what is known as the Renaissance, which spanned from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century. In the midst of the Renaissance, world trade was prosperous and vast. Nations established personal control through the commercial contacts that they established. In an effort to shorten certain trading routes and obtain a more surmountable amount of natural resources, many nations entered the Age of Exploration circa 1500. Christopher Columbus, in an effort to discover a more efficient route from Western Europe to India, accidently unearthed the Americas in 1492. His discovery led many other European nations to pursue imperialistic endeavors in what had become known as the New World. Two Spanish conquistadors, Cortez and Pizarro, made a profound impact on the areas they conquered in the New World. In Mexico, the native Aztecs were overpowered by Cortez’ forces. A majority fell ill from susceptibility to European diseases, while the rest were placed into coercive labor systems. Similar fates were bestowed upon the Incas subjected toShow MoreRelatedHistory Essay3334 Words   |  14 PagesAP WORLD HISTORY  ® Modified Essay Questions for Exam Practice This document provides modifications of the AP World History Comparative and Continuity and Change-Over-Time (CCOT) essay questions from the 2002 to the 2010 operational exams. The modified questions provide examples of essay questions that align more closely with the Curriculum Framework for the revised course as of the 2011-12 academic year. The accompanying rationale for each question explains the revisions. Mission Statement Read MoreEssay on Change Analysis Chart Postclassical (600-1450 C.E.)8730 Words   |  35 Pages* Change Analysis Chart Postclassical (600-1450 C.E.) | Basic Features at Beginning of period | Key Continuities | Key Changes | Basic Features at End of Period | Reasons for Change or Continuities | Global Trade What other trading systems existed at the beginning of the period? The Indian Ocean system is a continuity, not a change.What about the gold-salt trade? Dont you mean the Pax  Mongolica? | * Trade was very international. * Silk roads linked Eurasia, and goods traded hands many

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rising Petrol Prices Free Essays

Rising petrol prices 1) When and how did the cost of petrol start to rise? 2) Are there anybody else who is involved other than the drivers of motor vehicles? 3) Can we overcome the rising costs of petrol 4) Are there any advantages of the rising of petrol costs at all 5) How does the rising costs of petrol affect the Demand, Supply, Employment and Income section of the cycle Petrol prices have been continually soaring throughout the decades with GST (goods and service tax), the level of demand, the gulf war and the fact that we are running out of it being the main factors. In some cases the level and extent of competition of petrol companies in a particular location may also be a factor. Motor Vehicle drivers aren’t the only ones who’s suffering from expensive petrol, Aviation companies are also effected, recent surveys have shown that 28% of aviation companies prefer going for a more direct routing to their destinations, 40% found flying at slower speeds to save petrol, 19% cut back on hours flown, 15% started tankering fuel (getting it while it is at a lower price to save money). We will write a custom essay sample on Rising Petrol Prices or any similar topic only for you Order Now We certainly cannot overcome the rising of petrol prices but people in Australia and around the world are trying to help by changing their driving habits, using public transport more often and coming up new ways to make cars more fuel efficient. It is quite obvious what the disadvantages are when it comes to talking about the rising costs of petrol but when it comes to advantages I think that people are starting to cut back on shopping sprees, dinner dates and night outs because they want to save money and use it for petrol. There are also fewer teens on the roads because most of them obviously can’t afford petrol when the prices are this high which means that there are less drunk road accidents. A lot of people are also losing weight as a result of using bicycles to save petrol. ———————– A lot of people in the world want oil all at the same time. Oil reserves are running low on Fuel. (Oil supply do not meet demand expectations) They do not make as much money Employment stays the same DEMAND (goes up) Supply Employment Income How to cite Rising Petrol Prices, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Career Opportunities in Information Technology

Question: Discuss about the Career Opportunities in Information Technology. Answer: Introduction Information technologies change the of people play, live and conduct business. The IT industries are dominating job market and major reasons behind it are significant growth in e-commerce and the internet, increased demand for information security and rapid growth in the mobile computing era (Rogers 2013). This report is made to focus on the career options provided by IT industries all over the world. Major components of IT industry are identified in the following section and based on that career opportunities are also find out in several areas. Overview of IT Industry Across the globe, IT industries are growing exponentially with investments, demands, and technical capabilities, which are very crucial to support sustainable growth. Since 2014, the IT industry invests a lot and enhances their IOT (Internet of Things) solutions, which help to develop advance business intelligence applications (Shulock and Moore 2013). The growing information age revolutionizes business operations allowing organizations to improve their value propositions. Large investments in IOT contribute to obtaining data generation and application benefits. The industries always try to upgrade their technologies and its applications which have significant impacts to mine structured, unstructured and semi-structured data. In addition, big data applications generated from IOT solutions drive the organization to move in cloud operational infrastructure (Agarwal and Ohyama 2013). Furthermore, increasing cyber security breaches all over the world due to misconfiguration issues, invol vements of third parties, network loopholes and most importantly the lack of skilled security talents is the most worrying fact for everyone. Figure 1: Career Growth in IT industry (Source: Freeman, Cardin and Jeffries 2014, pp-100) The facts mentioned above and sheets show that there are lots of opportunities in IT industries to create employment branding and to provide advanced career opportunities, which can help on reducing the deficit in the talents gap. Components of IT industry Figure 2: Components of IT Industry (Source: Coetzee and Stoltz 2015, pp-85) From the above figure, it is clear that IT industries offer service opportunities in four areas which are IT hardware domain, IT software domain, service areas and telecom services. The educational qualifications needed to work on these specialized areas are illustrated as follows IT Hardware: In order to work in IT hardware filed, students must have possessed Bachelor degree in computer science or computer information filed. Besides, the student should have properly skilled knowledge on computer programming language such as C, JAVA, PHP and others (Brand, Valent and Browning 2013). In this domain, people are hired to install and monitor the operations of basic hardware equipment required to make effective computer system for the business organization. In order to work a network, speiclist should have extensive knowledge about network protocols, connectivity, network types, security devices and basic operating systems such as LINUX or Windows (Engineer 2015). Network security specialists diagnose and repair the instructions remotely and monitor the bottlenecks or security threats related to system connectivity. IT Software: In software field, IT industries have lots of career options to be offered to start from computer programmers, application programmers, system programmers, database administrators, system analysts to a web designer. In order to carry out this field as a professional, people should have a bachelors degree in computer engineering or information system (Simosi, Rousseau and Daskalaki 2015). People should also do several courses in programming languages to cover database management, system design and development activities and SQL (Structured Query Language). IT Services: This includes the implementation plans and processes of equipment and systems related to network or computing devices of the organization. People should have graduate degree in any computer-related field such as information science, computer science or network administration (Agarwal and Ohyama 2013). Various certification programs can provide practical experience of the network system administration. IT Telecom Services: IT telecom services facilitates installation of equipment required for transmitting broadband and cellular data. People must have skills in electronics or electrical domain. In addition, specialized courses should be done in broadband telecommunication or telephone networks (Biemann, Zacher and Feldman 2012). Furthermore, telecom engineers should have good experience in networking filed, must have problem solving abilities, great knowledge in software developments to deal with telecommunication systems and should possess basic knowledge about electronic and electrical knowledge. Career Options Offered by IT industry With the expanding business needs, IT industries offer a wide variety of career opportunities, which are mainly, categorized under two sections; one is hardware, and other is software. Career Opportunities In Hardware Career Options Descriptions Computer Engineers Computer engineers deal with hardware, system design aspects, and development. They are hired to design computer related devices or entirely a new computer system (Moore et al. 2012). These people also have the responsibilities to supervise the activities of hardware manufacturers or device controllers. Network Specialist Network specialists are the key people who are hired to administer security of the designed network system so that business operations will run smoothly. In addition, these people also help to adapt best hardware and software packages, which can make an effective network system for the organization (Sandy 2014). The network experts have five specialized areas which are as follows 1. Cisco Certified Network Associate- Can install, operate and configure LAN (Local Access Network) and nodes of small networks. 2. Cisco Certified Network Professional-Can handle a network of more than 100 to 500 nodes. 3. Multi-Layer Switched Network Engineer- Helps to explain how flexible networks can be designed and configured 4. Remote Access Network Engineer- Helps to interconnect the central cities with a home office or branch office. 5. Internet Troubleshooter- Can train the learners to troubleshoot the problems of a converged network. Table 1: Career Opportunities in IT Industry (Hardware) (Source: Drost et al. 2016, pp-15) Career Opportunities In Software Career Options Descriptions Computer Programmers Computer programmers test and maintain the software or program, also design and test the logical structure to solve the problems with the help of computers. Application Programmers Application developers concentrate on business operations and engineering areas (Mohedas et al. 2015). They also write software and can revise the existing software package. System Programmers System programmer deals with the functioning related to operating system and compilers. Database Administrators Database administrators (DBA) have the responsibilities to maintain database efficiency, accuracy, and development. DBA monitors the functioning related to database planning, conceptual design, transactional design, testing and final implications (Tolentino et al. 2014). Conversion, migration, support, and training are also the major roles of database administrators. Database Specialists Database specialists design, install, modify, repair and maintain computer databases. These people customize commercial databases to meet organizational needs, solve problems to meet clients needs and can develop a new database for new clients. Interface Designers Interface designers design the interface of the computer system, which helps to make communication between human and computer. Software Engineers These people are recruited to carry out the application developments by analyzing the users needs (Simosi, Rousseau and Daskalaki 2015). Software engineers design and modify basic computer applications and program. System Analyst With the use of computer technologies, system analysts develop new network system or reshape the existing system and its resources to meet organizational needs (Neilson et al. 2013). These people also help to prepare the return on benefit and cost benefit analysis to check whether the proposed system is economically feasible or not. Web Designer These people are hired to create, maintain and support internet sites of the organization. Web designers have to monitor day-to-day activities of these sites and develop new web application as per the clients requirements. Table 2: Career Opportunities in IT Industry (Software) (Source: Wilson et al. 2014. Pp-10) Future Opportunities Technology is the backbone of the organizational economy. Achievements in data storage, computer processing power, and chip design and enterprise mobility enables the IT industry to create potential opportunities, which were not possible economically and technologically in the previous days. Business Industries reached to a point where big data analytics, cognitive computing, internet of things (IOT) and cloud computing change the business growth exponentially. In order to gain competitive advantages in this world and to provide a unique quality of services to the customers, the organizations also make advancements in software, materials, machine design and fabrication technique that can help the industries to grow in a positive way. A career in information technology is challenging but rewarding as well and open many paths for individuals to achieve higher excellence in a career. Some of the advanced career opportunities to make higher growth in IT industry are described as follows Information System Manager: Business industries should recruit information system managers who act as a liaison between IT specialists and top management of the organization. Information system managers must have both the understanding of organizational needs as well as technological skills. The major responsibilities of information system managers are to monitor and measure the performance of the implemented network or computer system, which can increase organizational productivity. In addition, the information system managers should also have the responsibilities to check hardware installation, software upgrades, implementation of computer programming and development of digital security. The major role of information system manager is to generate digital reports to support clinical and administrative decision-making operations. Computer Support Specialist: In order to provide technical assistance to the system users, the organization needs computer support specialists. Computer support specialists resolve the problems from remote locations or via telephone. These people can provide assistance related to computer software, hardware, word processing, operating system and installation. In addition, these people should monitor daily activities of the system and should perform according to that. Data and information related to the transaction should be recorded on a daily basis and problems should be mitigated by taking proper actions against them. Cloud Engineer: Cloud architecture enables the organizations to handle a large array of data and information daily. The greatest advantage to move current business operation in the cloud is that it needs no additional hardware requirements and can back up crucial data and information effectively. Therefore, cloud engineers are in high demand who must understand the business needs to run the cloud operations properly. The cloud engineers should have proper knowledge about the storage networking, user management, open source solutions, optimization options, security virtualization and others. Big Data Specialists: These people are required in the organization to extract useful information from a large collection of data to run standard business practices and policies. Big data specialists should have good knowledge of Hadoop to crunch the data and help to understand the impacts of distributed and clustering file system on the cloud environment. Computer Animator: These people are in huge demand in this growing industry as they can help to design interesting video game applications and animations of different characters in a movie frame. In order to make a career in animation, people should have bachelor's degree in computer animation or fine arts. The hiring of computer animators can help the organization to create 2D and 3D graphics for different platforms, including computer games, videos, websites and computer applications. In this aspect, advanced technologies such as digital sculpting tools and pens should be used to make best applications of animations for business uses. Ethical Hacker: IT industry has their network or computer system, which have some security threats or vulnerabilities. The security threats create potential barriers, which slows down the entire business operations. This creates the needs to hire ethical hackers who can help the organization to mitigate the security weaknesses of the network or computer system. Ethical hackers scan the network ports by scanning tools such as Nessus, Nmap to identify security vulnerabilities present in it, so that best possible solutions can be adapted. Ethical hackers also have the responsibilities to monitor the activities of patches, including the installation of security applications such as firewall, an encryption technique, intrusion detection system and others. These are very crucial to maintain greater security throughout the organization. Conclusion Conclusively it can be stated that IT industries have significant opportunities, which can accelerate one's career in a positive way. Advanced technologies like cloud computing, big data, and others force the organizations to hire skilled people who can effectively manage these complex operations with great expertise. IT industry provides career opportunities in four domains, which are hardware, software, maintenance and telecommunication services. In the software domain, people can grow their careers in various field such as system administrators, computer programmers, database administrators and many others. All of these professions should have basic knowledge of computing languages and networking systems. However, in future these industries have many more career opportunities such as cloud engineer, big data analytics, computer administrators and many others, which can meet up the growing demands of technical field. References Agarwal, R. and Ohyama, A., 2013. Industry or academia, basic or applied? Career choices and earnings trajectories of scientists.Management Science,59(4), pp.950-970. Biemann, T., Zacher, H. and Feldman, D.C., 2012. Career patterns: A twenty-year panel study.Journal of Vocational Behavior,81(2), pp.159-170. Brand, B., Valent, A. and Browning, A., 2013. How Career and Technical Education Can Help Students Be College and Career Ready: A Primer.College and Career Readiness and Success Center. Coetzee, M. and Stoltz, E., 2015. Employees' satisfaction with retention factors: Exploring the role of career adaptability.Journal of Vocational Behavior,89, pp.83-91. Drost, R., Dougherty, D., Schroeder, J., Holland, J. and Waller, B., 2016. The After-College Search.Ethos,41(5), pp.14-20. Engineer, M.C.M., 2015. Career Opportunities. Freeman, E.A., Cardin, M. and Jeffries, B., 2014. Integrating Career Exploration and Planning in STEM Through Faculty.NACE Journal. Mohedas, I., Kaufmann, E.E., Daly, S.R. and Sienko, K.H., 2015. Ghanaian undergraduate biomedical engineering students perceptions of their discipline and career opportunities.Global Journal of Engineering Education,17(1). Moore, C., Jez, S.J., Chisholm, E. and Shulock, N., 2012. Career Opportunities: Career Technical Education and the College Completion Agenda. Part II: Inventory and Analysis of CTE Programs in the California Community Colleges.Institute for Higher Education Leadership Policy. Neilson, B., Proaps, A., Smith, D., Tharanathan, A. and Werner, N., 2013, September. A Student and Early Career Professional Perspective of Human Factors Career Options. InProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting(Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 1732-1734). SAGE Publications. Robinson, K., 2013. Career Information Literacy: Helping Undergraduate Students Attain Critical Thinking Skills for Class and Career Success. Rogers, T., 2013.Conferences and Conventions 3rd edition: A Global Industry. Routledge. Sandy, M.V., 2014. SUBJECT: Approval of Amendments to Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations and Guidance Pertaining to Designated Subjects Career Technical Education Teaching Credentials. Shulock, N. and Moore, C., 2013. Career Opportunities. Simosi, M., Rousseau, D.M. and Daskalaki, M., 2015. When career paths cease to exist: A qualitative study of career behavior in a crisis economy.Journal of Vocational Behavior,91, pp.134-146. Stephens, G.E., 2015. Uncertified and Teaching: Industry Professionals in Career and Technical Education Classrooms.Online Submission,2(2), pp.119-135. Tolentino, L.R., Garcia, P.R.J.M., Lu, V.N., Restubog, S.L.D., Bordia, P. and Plewa, C., 2014. Career adaptation: The relation of adaptability to goal orientation, proactive personality, and career optimism.Journal of Vocational Behavior,84(1), pp.39-48. Wilson, M.J., Wood, L., Solomonides, I., Dixon, P. and Goos, M., 2014. Navigating the career transition from industry to academia.Industry and Higher Education,28(1), pp.5-13.

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Canning and the Eastern Question Essay Example

Canning and the Eastern Question Essay In 1822 Castlereagh committed suicide and George Canning was appointed as the new British Foreign Secretary, a position he kept until his death in 1827. Castlereagh as Foreign Secretary had played a leading role in the defeat of Napoleon and was very keen to use the Congress System to restore peace in Europe; Canning however was more hostile to the Congress System as he believed British interests lay outside Europe and he had no good relationship with the other European statesmen. By his death in 1827 he had played a major role in the death of the Congress System but had also managed to successfully maintain British interests. At this time the Ottoman Empire was very large containing South Eastern Europe and parts of Asia and North Africa. However as it was such a huge ramshackle of different nationalities and religions in order for it to be governed effectively it needed a strong leadership from Constantinople, which the Turkish Sultan of this time couldnt offer, since 1815 the Ottoman Empire had been in decline. (The Ottoman Empire) After Frances defeat previously Russia was now considered the biggest threat to the balance of power in Europe. It had great military power due to the seemingly unlimited supply of peasant conscripts to its armed services. The weak Ottoman Empire was always being watched by Russia who was continuously pushing its boundaries Southwards towards Constantinople and the Straits. Russia was hoping to gain land and access through the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. Britain feared that if this occurred Russia would be able to threaten British trade and naval dominance in that area and also its important trade routes to India. We will write a custom essay sample on Canning and the Eastern Question specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Canning and the Eastern Question specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Canning and the Eastern Question specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Britain was not committed to maintaining the Empire but did not want to see it fall to Russia, however it was in the best interests for Austria to strengthen the Ottoman Empire as it was a useful buffer against Russian expansion and Austria had no designs on the land itself. France also wanted to see the Ottoman Empire preserved as it had long standing political and commercial links with Turkey and hoped to extend its influence over the area via the Pasha of Egypt, Mehmet Ali. At the Congress of Vienna the major European powers had restored monarchies to every European country but the 19th Century has been labelled The Age of Nationalism as individual countries wanted the right to look after their own interests free from the influence of a foreign power. The old monarchical powers such as Austria and Russia were terrified of revolution and the European powers all had a solid stance to crush any revolts. However the Greek uprising of 1822 against the Ottoman Empire was different. The deeply religious Russians were concerned with their fellow Orthodox Christians fighting to free themselves from Muslim rule. It seemed likely that Russia would become involved in this conflict as the Russians saw themselves as the unofficial guardians of the Orthodox religion and also relations between the Ottoman Empire and Russia were already poor as the Russians had been left feeling aggrieved after the Ottomans pulled out of the 1812 Bucharest Agreement. There was also a lot of sympathy for the Greek Revolution in Britain, especially throughout the educated elite; there were many volunteers who went there to fight for the Greeks such as Lord Byron the romantic poet who eventually died for the cause. The Greeks had even sent a deputation to Britain begging for help. The sympathy increased for the Greeks when the Turks conducted a massacre of Greek Orthodox Christians and murdered the Patriarch of Constantinople on Easter Sunday in 1821. In April 1821 the Greeks of Morea killed thousands of the local Turks and the Turks then retaliated with even worse horrors. This caused another surge in European public sympathy and in 1823 Canning recognized the Greeks as Co-belligerents, which meant he recognised Greeks right to take up arms against an unpopular Turkish regime. This sympathy for the Greeks however, was strongest in Russia, where it was going to be hard for the government to ignore such public feeling. The Tsar Alexander I initially wanted to intervene but Metternich, who arguing against supporting Nationalistic causes on the grounds that all revolutions must be prevented and that they were all centred from Paris, dissuaded him. However in December 1825 Tsar Alexander I died and the new Tsar, Nicholas I was ready for immediate intervention with or without international cooperation. He wanted to establish himself quickly in the eyes of his people and Europe and to avenge atrocities against Greek Orthodox Christians; also weakening the Turkish Empire would bring benefits to Russia. Canning now had to make sure the Russians didnt gain too much in this area. Turkey needed help to fight the Greek revolt and turned to Mehmet Ali, who held land in Egypt directly as a favour from the Turkish Sultan and was therefore obliged to help the Sultan if his interest were threatened. Between 1826 and 1827 an Egyptian army, under Mehmet Alis son Ibrahim Pasha, gained the upper hand over the Greek rebels. Canning tried to prevent Russia entering a war by sending Wellington to St Petersburg to offer solving the dispute by mediation to the new Tsar. Canning decided Britain must act to: * Prevent Turkey being weakened too much as it was a useful buffer against Russian expansion in the Balkans. * Make sure Russia didnt make too much advantage e. g. possession of Constantinople He may also have intervened to break up the Congress System, which he despised; he knew Anglo Russian cooperation would infuriate Metternich. The outcome was the Protocol of St Petersburg of April 1926 with which the British and the Russians offered mediation to the Turks as long as the Greeks retained some form of self-government. Britain, Russia and France confirmed this by attending the July 1827 Treaty of London where they guaranteed Greek self-government by force if necessary and a joint nav al expedition set out for Greece. Canning was now under great pressure as the Austrians and Prussians objected to this support of revolution and the Turks were refusing to sign the treaty. In August 1827 Canning died, probably brought on by overwork. Meanwhile the joint 27-ship fleet was blockading the Turkish-Egyptian fleet of 81 ships in the Greek, Navarino Bay. Though under orders to avoid hostilities, the British Admiral Codrington decided to force the issue by sailing into the bay. The Turks opened fire and a full-scale battle developed lasting four hours. It was a disaster for the Turks and their allies; 61 ships and about 4000 men were lost in October 1827. There was no prospect of the Turks recapturing Greece whose independence was recognised in 1830 and her frontiers were decided in 1832. In the end Cannings work in the Near East had mixed success. He had helped to achieve a completely independent Greece however his wider aim of limiting Russian gains by cooperation with her had been ruined by Wellington who failed to grasp Cannings intentions.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Chinese Cinema and the American Counterpart essays

Chinese Cinema and the American Counterpart essays One large difference between Chinese and American cinema is the governments' involvement with the production and releasing of a film. Generally speaking, the Chinese directors that choose to touch on sensitive subjects execute their scripts so sincerely that the government feels the need to interfere and come between the filmmaker and the audience. The films become more serious because of this censorship since they are dealing with real life issues. Conversely, in America, filmmakers tend to either poke fun at the lives of Americans or portray their leaders as noble and courageous as a form of silly propaganda. When Deng Xiaoping took over after the death of Mao Zedong, he set in motion the reopening of the Beijing Film Academy. The three top students, Chen Kaige, Zhang Yimou and Tian Zhuangzhuang, would go on to create the next wave of controversial Chinese films. Yellow Earth, directed by Chen Kaige and shot by Zhang Yimou, was one of the first movies created by this young group of filmmakers, known as the Fifth Generation. It was banned due to its portrayal of 1930's China. The movie touches on old traditions versus the new customs. Brother Gu is a soldier, sent to collect old folk songs to bring back to the troops. Giving the old bitter songs new words to sing is a metaphor for the changing of the role of women in China. Brother Gu explains to Cuiqiao how the women are allowed in combat, allowed to cut their hair, allowed to chose their husbands and generally lead less strict lives than the northern women. Brother Gu is a form of hope for Cuiqiao, as well as Hanhan. Their fa ther, elderly and old-fashioned, appreciates him in their home for his efforts, but not in the same manner as the children do. The children will live and not much will change; they will follow their ancestors' footsteps, continuing the work they have carried out their entire lives. The father says that when a boy marries, it is happiness, b...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

English Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 8

English - Essay Example Its arguments were sound and that, in a way, a semblance of connection could be found still when the writer assumed a combative mood towards a perceived error in reporting. Given the same circumstance – wherein a report is published in a subject that I am well versed of – and that I find it offensive or erroneous, I would probably do the same. Here, one can see that the author is passionate and not a passive and somehow I identify with that kind of attitude. Rockwood writes from a personal perspective, using his own voice. He was unapologetic as he dispenses his judgment without any reservations. He criticized the editorial â€Å"Get Bullish on Wind Power† according to his own terms. He outlined his ideas connecting them with the subject of his critique. In the process, the persuasion in the tone of the entire piece does not seem to prioritize the objective to persuade. The style employed followed those statements of facts and that arguments against it would constitute either fallacy or the lack of credibility. Indeed, Rockwood cited several arguments that are supported by evidence and his own technical knowledge on the subject. In how the piece was written, there was no hope to sway the mind of the reader so that the reader comes to believe what the writer believes. The objective was to enlighten. He was merely stating what the truth was and reality and that those arguments that digress are most probably fallacious. Rockwood’s essay was meant to refute the claims, positions and suggestions put forward by an earlier article. It is a critical essay and argumentative in the sense that it advances its own perspectives. However, I found the style lacking in this context. It is supposed to address the points made by the earlier editorial but it did not do that. Instead, it cited new arguments that someone could have claimed that the essay was written as original - without any previous connections to early work - and the reader